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Linux系统配置

本文档为Linux服务器的配置方面的笔记,Linux相关笔记还有:

Linux命令行操作技巧

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Linux备份

TOC:


如何翻墙

部署shadowsocks客户端,并部署Privoxy提供http proxy

代码参见ssprivoxy.txt


配置有线静态IP

vim /etc/network/interfaces
# 写入以下内容,请自行替换xx部分
iface eth0 inet static
 address 10.xx.xx.13 #你需要设置的IP
 netmask 255.255.255.0 #子网掩码
 network 10.xx.xx.0
 broadcast 10.xx.xx.255
 gateway 10.xx.xx.254 #网关
 dns-nameservers 10.10.0.21 #dns服务器
# 按Esc, :wq退出保存
service networking restart
ifconfig eth0 10.xx.xx.13 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
route add default eth0 #路由配置也很重要,错误的路由将导致不能访问
route add default gw 10.xx.xx.254 dev eth0 #这里设置为你的网关

注意使用ifconfig进行ip的修改后,会丢失路由信息、额外的ip设置,需要重新配置route(执行上述两条route命令即可)

之前已经配置过静态ip,现在要改为自动获取

dhclient eth0

出现报错RTNETLINK answers: File exists,解决方案:

ip addr flush dev eth0

配置apt源以加速国内环境下apt速度

curl http://mirrors.163.com/.help/sources.list.trusty>/etc/apt/sources.list

如果还未安装curl,先手动写入这两行:

deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse

注:vim复制一行的命令为yy,粘贴为p

或者通过sed替换:

sed -i 's/security.ubuntu.com/mirrors.zju.edu.cn/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's/archive.ubuntu.com/mirrors.zju.edu.cn/g' /etc/apt/sources.list

单网卡获得多个IP

ifconfig eth0:233 10.xx.xx.233 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

解决apt依赖问题

问题描述:服务器为ubuntu14.04版本,某些不明操作后,无法用apt-get安装任何东西

> apt-get -f install
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Correcting dependencies... failed.
The following packages have unmet dependencies:
 libatk1.0-0 : Depends: libglib2.0-0 (>= 2.41.1) but 2.40.0-2 is installed
 libglib2.0-bin : Depends: libglib2.0-0 (= 2.44.0-1ubuntu3) but 2.40.0-2 is installed
 libglib2.0-dev : Depends: libglib2.0-0 (= 2.44.0-1ubuntu3) but 2.40.0-2 is installed
 libgtk2.0-0 : Depends: libglib2.0-0 (>= 2.41.1) but 2.40.0-2 is installed
E: Error, pkgProblemResolver::Resolve generated breaks, this may be caused by held packages.
E: Unable to correct dependencies

仔细看错误说明,libglib2.0-bin这个软件包要求libglib2.0-0的版本=2.44但是现有的安装版本为2.40

在ubuntu的软件包官网搜索咯:https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/

发现2.44版本的是vivid才提供的,现在系统版本是trusty,自然apt-get装不了

解决方案:

找到报错信息需要的精确匹配的那个deb文件下载咯,例如这里就要下载这个版本的:

https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/vivid/amd64/libglib2.0-0/2.44.0-1ubuntu3

得到deb文件后dpkg -i 文件名

Note

一般apt依赖冲突问题都是由于系统版本与需要的包的版本不一致导致的,检查一下/etc/apt/sources.list看看是否匹配系统版本咯

用apt-get前检查一下sources.list 看与当前lsb-release -a是否一致


UnixBench

VPS性能测试工具,耗时较长,耐心等待

curl https://codeload.github.com/kdlucas/byte-unixbench/zip/v5.1.3>UnixBench.zip
unzip UnixBench.zip
cd byte-unixbench-5.1.3/UnixBench
# apt-get install build-essential
make
screen -S ub
./Run

参考数据,均为最低配置:主机屋1590.5;阿里云1470.4;腾讯云1156.0

硬盘IO性能测试

dd if=/dev/zero of=test bs=64k count=4k oflag=dsync
dd if=/dev/zero of=test bs=8k count=256k conv=fdatasync

清除内存缓存

使用free -h查看可用内存前可以执行这个命令,查看除去buffer后的可用内存

sync
echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

使用iptables封ip

屏蔽单个IP

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.45.6.7 -j DROP

封C段

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.45.6.0/24 -j DROP

封B段

 iptables -I INPUT -s 123.45.0.0/16 -j DROP

封A段

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

记得保存

service iptables save

删除一条规则

只要把上述的插入规则重写一次,将其中的-I改为-D即可

iptables -D INPUT -s IP地址 -j DROP

如果懒得重写 你也可以先列举出规则所在的id,根据id删除:

iptables -L --line-numbers

假设你想删除INPUT链的第3条规则:

iptables -D INPUT 3

只允许特定IP访问某端口

iptables的插入次序很重要,先加入的会先匹配,所以拒绝策略应该最后加入

以8888端口为例,只允许10.77.88.99这个IP 和 10.22.33.0/24 这个C段访问,其他来源的访问拒绝 返回connection refused

iptables -A INPUT -s 10.77.88.99 -p tcp --dport 8888 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 10.22.33.0/24 -p tcp --dport 8888 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 8888 -j REJECT

无root权限使用screen

https://www.gnu.org/software/screen/

复制相同操作系统下的screen二进制文件,运行前指定环境变量

mkdir -p $HOME/.screen
export SCREENDIR=$HOME/.screen

screen的用法

列出存在的screen:

screen -ls

创建一个名为name的screen:

screen -S name

从screen脱离:

按Ctrl+A后按d

重新连上名称为name的screen:

screen -r name

创建一个screen的自启动,让后台进程获得tty

# 假设写好了一个/root/code.sh
vim /etc/rc.local
# 在最后加入一行,其中NAME替换为自己喜欢的名字
screen -dmS NAME /root/code.sh

举个例子–监测外网能否ping通,如果不能重连zjuvpn:

code/pingtest.sh


双网卡端口转发,暴露内网端口

@TAG 端口转发

来自: https://yq.aliyun.com/wenzhang/show_25824

有两台机器,其中一台A 有内网和外网,B只有内网。

目标: 在外网访问A机器的2121端口,就相当于连上了B机器的ftp(21)

环境:

A机器外网IP为 1.2.3.4(eth1) 内网IP为 192.168.1.20 (eth0)

B机器内网为 192.168.1.21

实现方法:

首先在A机器上打开端口转发功能

    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    echo -e "\nnet.ipv4.ip_forward = 1">>/etc/sysctl.conf
    sysctl -p

然后在A机器上创建iptables规则

# 把访问外网2121端口的包转发到内网ftp服务器
iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -d 1.2.3.4 -p tcp --dport 2121 -j DNAT --to 192.168.1.21:21 

# 把到内网ftp服务器的包回源到内网网卡上,不然包只能转到ftp服务器,而返回的包不能到达客户端
iptables -t nat -I POSTROUTING -d 192.168.1.21 -p tcp --dport 21 -j SNAT --to 192.168.1.20 

# 保存一下规则
service iptables save

取消转发方法

iptables中把-I改为-D运行就是删除此条规则


保护重要系统文件防止被删

使用+i标志位使得root用户也不能删除/bin, /sbin, /usr/sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/sbin, /usr/local/bin

chattr -R +i /bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/bin /usr/local/sbin /usr/local/bin

设置后无法apt-get安装新软件,需要先取消标志位

chattr -R -i /bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/bin /usr/local/sbin /usr/local/bin

查看CPU核心个数

一般我会用 top 命令,按 1 就能看到每个CPU占用情况

但当CPU太多的时候还是需要执行命令的:

# 查看物理CPU个数
cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "physical id"| sort| uniq| wc -l

# 查看每个物理CPU中core的个数(即核数)
cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "cpu cores"| uniq

# 查看逻辑CPU的个数
cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "processor"| wc -l

非交互式添加用户

useradd username -m
echo username:badpassword|chpasswd

添加一个用户名为username的用户并创建home目录,并设置密码为badpassword


简单OpenVPN配置

一个最最简单的场景:只有一个服务器 一个客户端,在容器中用来给用户直接访问的一个内网IP

参考: https://openvpn.net/index.php/open-source/documentation/miscellaneous/78-static-key-mini-howto.html

安装openvpn:

Linux:

apt-get install openvpn

Windows:

openvpn.exe

生成密钥

openvpn --genkey --secret static.key

用另外建立的安全通道(SSH)将static.key发给客户端

服务端配置

ifconfig 10.8.0.1 10.8.0.2
secret /static.key
keepalive 10 60
persist-key
persist-tun
proto udp
port 1194
dev tun0
status /tmp/openvpn-status.log

user nobody
group nogroup

在 Ubuntu 中,如果要配置成系统服务的形式,将其保存到/etc/openvpn/myvpn.conf

然后这样启动它:

service openvpn@myvpn start

这样设置开机自启

systemctl enable openvpn@myvpn.service

客户端配置

remote 这里是你的服务器IP 这里是你的服务器端口 udp
dev tun
ifconfig 10.8.0.2 10.8.0.1
secret static.key

在Docker中使用服务端

参考: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kylemanna/docker-openvpn/master/bin/ovpn_run

运行容器的时候一定要给参数--cap-add=NET_ADMIN

另外还需要在容器中执行:

mkdir -p /dev/net
if [ ! -c /dev/net/tun ]; then
    mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200
fi

时区时间设置

参考: http://liumissyou.blog.51cto.com/4828343/1302050

设置为上海时区 UTC+8

apt-get install tzdata
cp /etc/localtime /etc/localtime.bak
ln -svf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime
echo "TZ='Asia/Shanghai'">>~/.bashrc
ntpdate cn.pool.ntp.org

修改时间可以用:

date -s "2017-06-18 16:40:00"

快速地格式化大分区ext4

Linux系统建议使用ext4分区格式,但直接mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1就有很大的坑:会默认lazyinit在很长一段时间内占用IO

参考: http://fibrevillage.com/storage/474-ext4-lazy-init

适用于存储少量大文件的格式化大硬盘的方法如下,这样不会跳过初始化磁盘的过程而且初始化过程很快:

mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdXX -E lazy_itable_init=0,lazy_journal_init=0 -O sparse_super,large_file -m 0 -T largefile4

对应的man文档


添加受信任的CA证书 mitmproxy

@TAG mitm

cat ~/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.pem >> /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

明明还有大量空间却说没有?inode满了!挂载单个文件为btrfs分区

问题现象

df -h显示还有很多空间,但echo test>test.txt会显示No space left on device

查到这个: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Knowledge_Base:No_space_left_on_device_while_there_is_plenty_of_space_available

使用df -i查看inodes占用情况,发现确实100%了

解决方案

inodes上限在mkfs时就定下来了,不能改动,所以没救了。。。

真没救了嘛? 当然不是,虽然不能写入大量小文件,但还是可以写一个大文件的嘛,就想到挂载单个文件为btrfs分区

1. 删文件 腾出部分inodes

删掉一些不用的小文件,也不用删太多

2. 创建一个1TB的sparse file

参考: https://prefetch.net/blog/2009/07/05/creating-sparse-files-on-linux-hosts-with-dd/

使用dd命令,不将实际内容写入硬盘,能很快执行完成:

NAME="filesystem"
dd if=/dev/zero of=${NAME}.img bs=1 count=0 seek=1T

执行后ls -alh能看到文件大小为1T,使用du filesystem.img查看真实空间

3. 创建磁盘分区

参考: https://www.jamescoyle.net/how-to/2096-use-a-file-as-a-linux-block-device

btrfs参考: https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Getting_started

mkfs.btrfs ${NAME}.img

4. 挂载分区

mount ${NAME}.img /mnt

5. 然后就可以搬运数据过去了

就用mv像往常一样搬咯

一些查看空间的命令

# 查看磁盘文件占用空间
du -h filesystem.img
# 查看btrfs元数据占用空间
btrfs filesystem df /mnt
# 也是查看空间
btrfs filesystem usage /mnt

6. 卸载设备

sudo umount /mnt
sudo losetup -d /dev/loop0

扩容上述单文件btrfs磁盘

@TAG 安全最佳实践

随着不停地写入数据,上面创建的1TB分区就要被写满了!但文件所在物理磁盘还有空间,我们可以这样给btrfs磁盘扩容:

实际文件用truncate增加一个hole;losetup更新loop0的大小;使用btrfs命令给分区扩容

truncate是一个危险的命令,为了避免手抖把空间写小了丢失数据,这里用--reference参数指定一个目标大小的文件,例如我们想扩容到1.5T=1536GB

dd if=/dev/zero of=temp bs=1 count=0 seek=1536G
ls -alh # 确认文件大小
truncate -r temp filesystem.img

# 假设目前使用的是/dev/loop0
# 你可以这样确认loop0确实是filesystem.img挂载的 losetup --list /dev/loop0
losetup -c /dev/loop0

# 确保目前btrfs分区是挂载着的btrfs必须先mount才能resize
# mount filesystem.img /mnt
btrfs filesystem resize +500G /mnt

参考:

  • https://linux.die.net/man/1/truncate
  • https://askubuntu.com/questions/260620/resize-dev-loop0-and-increase-space
  • https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/UseCases#How_do_I_resize_a_partition.3F_.28shrink.2Fgrow.29

安全地拔出移动硬盘

首先当然是sudo umount /mnt卸载挂载点咯,如何更安全一点呢?

udisksctl power-off -b /dev/sdb

From: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/354138/safest-way-to-remove-usb-drive-on-linux


iptables 让监听在127.0.0.1上的端口可以公网访问

参考: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/111433/iptables-redirect-outside-requests-to-127-0-0-1

例如有监听在127.0.0.1:1234的应用,现在想通过ip:5678来访问

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 5678 -j DNAT --to-destination 127.0.0.1:1234
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.eth0.route_localnet=1

VMWare扩容磁盘 LVM在线扩容

@TAG 虚拟机

参考: https://ma.ttias.be/increase-a-vmware-disk-size-vmdk-formatted-as-linux-lvm-without-rebooting/

https://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2277232

修复GPT PMBR size mismatchparted -l输入Fix即可,无需live cd

root@docker:/d# parted -l
Warning: Not all of the space available to /dev/sda appears to be used, you can
fix the GPT to use all of the space (an extra 314572800 blocks) or continue with
the current setting?
Fix/Ignore? Fix
Model: VMware Virtual disk (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 215GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name  Flags
 1      1049kB  2097kB  1049kB                     bios_grub
 2      2097kB  1076MB  1074MB  ext4
 3      1076MB  53.7GB  52.6GB


Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm)
Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv: 52.6GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop
Disk Flags:

Number  Start  End     Size    File system  Flags
 1      0.00B  52.6GB  52.6GB  ext4


Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.
Model: NECVMWar VMware SATA CD00 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sr0: 875MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 2048B/2048B
Partition Table: mac
Disk Flags:

Number  Start  End    Size    File system  Name   Flags
 1      2048B  6143B  4096B                Apple
 2      659MB  662MB  2523kB               EFI


root@docker:/d# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/loop0: 91 MiB, 95408128 bytes, 186344 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: C6597B3B-17F0-482A-AF5D-6056F7788052

Device       Start       End   Sectors Size Type
/dev/sda1     2048      4095      2048   1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2     4096   2101247   2097152   1G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3  2101248 104855551 102754304  49G Linux filesystem


Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv: 49 GiB, 52609155072 bytes, 102752256 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
root@docker:/d# fdisk /dev/sda

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.31.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.


Command (m for help): n
Partition number (4-128, default 4):
First sector (104855552-419430366, default 104855552):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (104855552-419430366, default 419430366):

Created a new partition 4 of type 'Linux filesystem' and of size 150 GiB.

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4, default 4): 4
Partition type (type L to list all types): 8e

Type of partition 4 is unchanged: Linux filesystem.

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Syncing disks.

root@docker:/d# partprobe -s
/dev/sda: gpt partitions 1 2 3 4
/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv: loop partitions 1
Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.
Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.
Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.
/dev/sr0: mac partitions 1 2
root@docker:/d# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/loop0: 91 MiB, 95408128 bytes, 186344 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: C6597B3B-17F0-482A-AF5D-6056F7788052

Device         Start       End   Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1       2048      4095      2048    1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2       4096   2101247   2097152    1G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3    2101248 104855551 102754304   49G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda4  104855552 419430366 314574815  150G Linux filesystem


Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv: 49 GiB, 52609155072 bytes, 102752256 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
root@docker:/d# pvcreate /dev/sda
sda   sda1  sda2  sda3  sda4
root@docker:/d# pvcreate /dev/sda4
  Physical volume "/dev/sda4" successfully created.
root@docker:/d# vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  3
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                1
  Open LV               1
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <49.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              12543
  Alloc PE / Size       12543 / <49.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0
  VG UUID               FJI08W-C0Db-dXmu-WPyq-Zlr9-Lejq-xadlCk

root@docker:/d# vgextend ubuntu-vg /dev/sda4
  Volume group "ubuntu-vg" successfully extended
root@docker:/d# pvscan
  PV /dev/sda3   VG ubuntu-vg       lvm2 [<49.00 GiB / 0    free]
  PV /dev/sda4   VG ubuntu-vg       lvm2 [<150.00 GiB / <150.00 GiB free]
  Total: 2 [198.99 GiB] / in use: 2 [198.99 GiB] / in no VG: 0 [0   ]
root@docker:/d# lvextend /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv /dev/sda4
  Size of logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv changed from <49.00 GiB (12543 extents) to 198.99 GiB (50942 extents).
  Logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv successfully resized.
root@docker:/d# resize2fs /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
resize2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
Filesystem at /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 7, new_desc_blocks = 25
The filesystem on /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is now 52164608 (4k) blocks long.

VMWare新添加一块硬盘扩容根目录

@TAG 虚拟机

参考这两篇:

https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/vmware-add-a-new-hard-disk-without-rebooting-guest.html

https://www.unixmen.com/add-a-new-disk-to-lvm/

root@docker3:/d# for i in /sys/class/scsi_host/*; do echo "- - -" > ${i}/scan; done
root@docker3:/d# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sdb: 1 TiB, 1099511627776 bytes, 2147483648 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

root@docker3:/d# fdisk /dev/sdb

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.31.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Device does not contain a recognized partition table.
Created a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x3289a390.

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p):

Using default response p.
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
First sector (2048-2147483647, default 2048):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (2048-2147483647, default 2147483647):

Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 1024 GiB.

Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 8e
Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux LVM'.

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

root@docker3:/d# pvcreate /dev/sdb1
  Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created.
root@docker3:/d# vgextend ubuntu-vg /dev/sdb1
  Volume group "ubuntu-vg" successfully extended
root@docker3:/d# pvscan
  PV /dev/sda3   VG ubuntu-vg       lvm2 [<199.00 GiB / 0    free]
  PV /dev/sdb1   VG ubuntu-vg       lvm2 [<1024.00 GiB / <1024.00 GiB free]
  Total: 2 [1.19 TiB] / in use: 2 [1.19 TiB] / in no VG: 0 [0   ]
root@docker3:/d# lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
  Size of logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv changed from <199.00 GiB (50943 extents) to 1.19 TiB (313086 extents).
  Logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv successfully resized.
root@docker3:/d# resize2fs /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
resize2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
Filesystem at /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 25, new_desc_blocks = 153
The filesystem on /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is now 320600064 (4k) blocks long.

root@docker3:/d# df -h
/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv  1.2T  170G  986G  15% /

挂载多个vmdk中的LVM分区

@TAG 虚拟机 离线操作

参考: https://superuser.com/questions/1376690/how-to-mount-an-lvm-volume-from-a-dd-raw-vmdk-image

试过用windows的7z直接打开压缩包,只能看到LVM或者多个img文件,不能跳过解压步骤,所以还是在linux上挂载吧

假设有三个vmdk文件需要挂载,得到的lvm是/dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv,只读挂载到/mnt

需要apt install -y kpartx

挂载 mount.sh:

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#!/bin/bash
kpartx -a -v disk1.vmdk
kpartx -a -v disk2.vmdk
kpartx -a -v disk3.vmdk
sleep 2
pvscan
mount  -o ro /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv /mnt

取消挂载 umount.sh:

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#!/bin/bash
umount /mnt
lvchange -an /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
vgchange -an /dev/ubuntu-vg
kpartx -d disk1.vmdk
kpartx -d disk2.vmdk
kpartx -d disk3.vmdk

启用rc.local

参考 https://www.linuxbabe.com/linux-server/how-to-enable-etcrc-local-with-systemd

确认有没有启用rc.local: systemctl status rc-local.service如果有绿色的Active: active (exited)出现就是已经启用

nano /etc/systemd/system/rc-local.service
printf '%s\n' '#!/bin/bash' 'exit 0' | sudo tee -a /etc/rc.local
chmod +x /etc/rc.local
systemctl enable rc-local
[Unit]
 Description=/etc/rc.local Compatibility
 ConditionPathExists=/etc/rc.local

[Service]
 Type=forking
 ExecStart=/etc/rc.local start
 TimeoutSec=0
 StandardOutput=tty
 RemainAfterExit=yes
 SysVStartPriority=99

[Install]
 WantedBy=multi-user.target

apt禁用Translation

apt update的时候发现一堆翻译的条目,不想看到这些

创建/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/99translations

Acquire::Languages "none";

开机自启动wireguard

systemctl enable wg-quick@wg0.service
systemctl daemon-reload
service wg-quick@wg0 start
service wg-quick@wg0 status

修复失败的do-release-upgrade

参考: https://www.kingsware.de/2019/01/05/repair-a-damaged-package-system-after-ubuntu-dist-upgrade/

可能的原因是使用了ppa源,而新的发行版里这些软件包已经进入官方源造成冲突

apt update
apt upgrade
apt dist-upgrade
apt install -f
dpkg --configure -a
apt autoremove

如果你需要禁用ppa源,你可以直接去删除/etc/apt/sources.list.d的文件,或者:

add-apt-repository --remove ppa:PPA_REPOSITORY_NAME/PPA-NAME

解决wireguard 内核模块编译失败

报错信息 error: ‘const struct ipv6_stub’ has no member named ‘ipv6_dst_lookup_flow’

查到这些链接: https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=959157

官方已经给出了patch: https://git.zx2c4.com/wireguard-linux-compat/commit/?id=4602590adee92557847e61c8cd14445d35fbfa2e

但是我已经从最新git下载,这个patch是已经打了的,还是同样的报错

看patch发现这个改动就是在判断内核版本,如果符合特定版本就引入ipv6_dst_lookup_flow的#define语句

但估计这个版本判断是不完备的,正好漏掉了当前的内核版本,所以解决方案很简单:强行把这个define加入即可

git clone https://git.zx2c4.com/wireguard-linux-compat
cd wireguard-linux-compat/src
echo "#define ipv6_dst_lookup_flow(a, b, c, d) ipv6_dst_lookup(a, b, &dst, c) + (void *)0 ?: dst" >> compat/compat.h
make
make install

LUKS

教程: https://www.cyberciti.biz/security/howto-linux-hard-disk-encryption-with-luks-cryptsetup-command/

验证密钥是否正确

cryptsetup luksDump 设备
cryptsetup luksOpen --test-passphrase --key-slot 0 设备 && echo ok
cryptsetup luksOpen --test-passphrase --key-file 密钥文件 --key-slot 1 设备 && echo ok

ntp的替代 使用http更新时间

在ntp服务器访问不了的时候,我们也可以使用http协议的Date字段来获取时间

参考: https://superuser.com/questions/307158/how-to-use-ntpdate-behind-a-proxy

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#!/bin/bash
date -s "$(curl -i  "http://www.google.com/" 2>/dev/null | grep -E '^[[:space:]]*[dD]ate:' | sed 's/^[[:space:]]*[dD]ate:[[:space:]]*//' | head -1l | awk '{print $1, $3, $2,  $5 ,"GMT", $4 }' | sed 's/,//')"

使用rsync备份全盘

参考:

  • 主要参数来自 https://github.com/laurent22/rsync-time-backup
  • https://ostechnix.com/backup-entire-linux-system-using-rsync/
  • 不要跨过mount边界用-xx https://superuser.com/questions/626141/rsync-recursive-on-same-mount-only
  • 显示进度用--info=progress2 https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/show-progress-during-file-transfer/
rsync --info=progress2 -D --numeric-ids --links --hard-links --itemize-changes --times --recursive --perms --owner --group --stats --human-readable -xx / /target/

小文件太多不建议使用rsync-time-backup,会产生大量的硬链接,占据大量btrfs metadata空间

备份过程中显示的理解: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/215271/understanding-the-output-of-info-progress2-from-rsync

  • xfr#495 表示当前正在传输第495个文件
  • ir-chk=1020/3825 已经知道有3825个文件,其中1020个需要检查目标位置的文件是否一致